Summative assessments such as end of unit or end of year tests provide teachers with a measurement of what students have learned after thorough instruction has taken place. On the other hand, formative assessments inform the learning process. Formative assessments include both formal and informal assessments. Effective teachers use formative assessments daily and weekly to inform and adjust instruction to ensure students meet the learning outcomes.
Check out this free list of 60 formative instructional strategies by Natalie Regier (2012):